A pawn (♙) can capture an opponent's piece on a square diagonally in front of it by moving to that square. pawns do not threat the quares in front of them
The king (♔) moves one square in any direction.
A rook (♖) can move any number of squares along a rank or file, but cannot leap over other pieces.
A bishop (♗) can move any number of squares diagonally, but cannot leap over other pieces.
A queen (♕) combines the power of a rook and bishop and can move any number of squares along a rank, file, or diagonal, but cannot leap over other pieces.
A knight (♘) moves to any of the closest squares that are not on the same rank, file, or diagonal. (Thus the move forms an "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally, or two squares horizontally and one square vertically.) The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces.
Chess wikipedia page